Socks for the Boys!

My Great Aunt Norah's wartime diaries, 1938-1948

The scholarship girl (continued)

If I am honest, I expected Norah to find life difficult as a working-class scholarship girl in a posh grammar school. I scoured her early diaries for any suggestion that she felt out of place. This is my sensitivity. As a university student in the 1980s, I hungered after writing about the emotional dimension of ‘class mobility’. Tony Harrison’s School of Eloquence poems, Saville by David Storey, Carolyn Steedman’s Landscape for a Good Woman, all tell stories of a disruption more profound than the lack of familiarity with courgettes, or the assumption that the nation enjoyed salad cream with its lettuce.

Rob Colls, Professor of Cultural History at De Montfort University, movingly describes his own moment of recognition, reading Richard Hoggart’s The Uses of Literacy while lying on his bed in his parents’ South Shields flat in 1965, and seeing the neighbourhood beyond as a ‘culture.’ ‘For the first time in my life,’ Colls writes, ‘I felt like I was learning what I knew already… fairly big news for a grammar school boy who, at the time, was being trained to purge himself of who he was and where he came from. From that moment on I started looking differently at these people in the street, seeing their life as somehow external from mine, though not apart from it, and valued, though not necessarily by them… The trouble is, once you start looking at, rather than with, everything changes and the moment of realization is also the moment of estrangement.’[1]

But Norah didn’t feel at all ‘purged’ at Loughborough Girls High School.


LGHS 1941 001


lghs french book 1941 001

While she would have agreed that the scholarship girl and boy was one of the great phenomena of Twentieth Century social history, she would have had no truck with such angst. Despite the economic gulf that existed between herself and some of her school friends, she felt well-prepared for a grammar school education. This was not only because her brothers Dennis and Frank had paved the way for her, but because she had a deep sense of her own entitlement.

This was, I believe, a Labour thing. Perhaps more specifically, it was born of 1890s socialism, as the north of England and parts of the Midlands were swept up with the ILP and an accompanying array of cultural and leisure societies: cycling clubs, vocal unions, handicraft clubs, Clarion scouts and rambling, Cinderella clubs. As I have written elsewhere on this blog, Norah’s father, Tom Hodgkinson, was a big Labour man, while her mother, Milly, grew up in a  lock-keeper’s cottage  on the Trent-Mersey canal with parents,  Arthur and Harriet Leadbetter, who pored over socialist writing. The dignity of labour, the love of the rural, the assault by women on domestic drudgery: all would have been familiar to them, not least from their enjoyment of The Clarion, an early socialist paper that came out of Manchester in which Robert Blatchford serialised his own Merrie England  and included stories, poetry and art, notably the beautiful drawings of Walter Crane.

Milly, as we have seen, was faintly disapproving of her parents’ neglect of housework and children as they preferred to sit and read aloud to each other from Walt Whitman’s poetry. At the same time, she admired their self-education and independence and they passed on to her an unshakable belief that not only was a good education a natural right, but that no badge of inferiority should be attached to their cultural origins. To my great pleasure, I can see Norah’s home life in John Baxendale’s discussion of the ‘rich, democratic and self-sufficient cultural life’ which resonates down the decades to shape the work of the popular writer and broadcaster J.B. Priestley (2).

What did it mean for Norah? The breezy tone of her diaries, the lack of evidence of any culture clash at school, intrigues me. Possibly, we might see something of it if we look to the back of her Letts’s School-Girl’s Diaries for 1938 and 1939, where printed pages provide grids for recording Books Read and Film Seen:


Norah is at ease in her positive assessment of middlebrow novels and her enjoyment of memoirs which tackled social and political concerns. Elsewhere she records reading Wanderings and Excursions by ‘Ramsey Mac’ (Goodish’), Lloyd George’s Memoirs (‘Very Good’). Here, J.B. Priestley’s They Walk in the City is described simply as ‘Lovely.’ Norah read without discrimination, with no special reverence afforded to ‘high brow’ culture or the classics. It is with some irony that I note her dismissal of Kipling’s Rewards and Fairies  (‘No good’).  And as for Bloomsbury: they don’t even get a look-in.

Norah was able to embrace her education, to feel entitled, to know that she belonged at LGHS. There was no great gulf between the education she received there and the conversation topics at home. Indeed, her parents would have thought of themselves as offering a broader experience of the world; a critique as well as a lapping up. But writing her diary each evening through 1938 and 1939, Norah also knew that she was on the move. Just as the family left behind the Hill Top cottage for a brand new council house in 1938, just as Dennis, her eldest brother, had moved away to a white-collar job, she knew she would have a different life. She might not go to art college or marry a Siamese prince but she wouldn’t end up in Gibson’s hosiery factory or spend her days in a poky, damp house overflowing with children, her dreams squashed by some kill-joy husband.  I will explore this more at a later date: the difference between her parents’ socialist New Life and Norah’s experience of modernity. When we finally get to the heart of this story, the WW2 romance, I surmise that this will prove to be a factor in Norah’s choice of Danny the airman over Sailor Jim.

[1] Rob Colls, ‘When we lived in communities. Working-class culture and its critics,’ in R Colls and R Rodger, eds Cities of Ideas. Governance and Citizenship in Urban Britain 1800-2000 (Ashgate, 2005), pp. 283-307, here pp. 284, 286.

[2] John Baxendale, Priestley’s England: J.B. Priestley and English Culture (MUP, 2007), p. 39, chapter 2 passim.


4 comments on “The scholarship girl (continued)

  1. Ian Waites
    June 22, 2013

    You’ve been playing around with the design Alison – much crisper! Just been reading Colls’ piece myself. It’s funny but one abstract/idea for a paper that I nearly submitted to Unofficial Histories was to be called ‘On your own again: the inner life of a teenager on an English Council Estate’ which was to deal with the pretensions and tensions of an ‘art-pop'(read Roxy Music, Neu!, Eno) loving outsider in a working-class community – something I must work on sometime. It’s heartening however to read about Norah’s ease and confidence in fitting into the high school system – that’s obviously what an old-style well-read Socialist family background can do for you. It never quite worked for me – I sometimes still feel wrong/out of place even now being ‘a university lecturer’. What should I have been I wonder?

    • Alison
      June 24, 2013

      Thanks Ian – I am still not sure about the design. I really liked the big banner with Norah’s photo across the top, but I like the separate pages here too. Am not a fan of scrolling down! Re class: it is interesting comparing Norah’s experience with writing by Bennet, Harrison and others etc. I have to keep reminding myself that she was at a grammar where there was a good number of girls on scholarships and she was especially academic and didn’t go to university. It is possible that this was a very different experience for girls, although I haven’t got to the bottom of that yet. And yes, I agree, there is something very heartening about the confidence that comes with that sort of background. Wish I’d had it too!

  2. Ian Waites
    June 28, 2013

    The site’s easier to navigate but you have a point. re the big banner and photo – is there a middle ground? You can spend ages faffing around with these things though if you’re not careful. Looking forward to reading about the ancestral home!

  3. Pingback: the extraordinary adventures of ordinary girls | Socks for the Boys!

Please leave comment here

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s

Will Pooley


My Darling Janie

The love letters of Fred & Janie - my great great grandparents courting in Sheffield in the 1870's

Sarah Pett

Early Career Researcher and Teacher (SOAS)

Unofficial Histories

Stepping out of the strait jacket of academia...


of a social historian

Storying the Past

A blog for creative histories and the #storypast virtual reading group

Tall Tales and True

Stories from my Family Tree


Historian and geographer, writer and researcher

Stumbling Through the Past

Delving into History...

Centre for Innovation & Research in Childhood and Youth

Interdisciplinary, international & in the real world

Feminist Teacher

educating for equity and justice

History On The Dole

notes from the margins of the past

Historians are Past Caring

Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it

The Social Historian

Adventures in the world of history


prole (colloquial, freq. derogatory) = proletarian

That's How The Light Gets In

Books, exhibitions, films, music, places - anything that inspires. Here so I don't forget.

Lucinda Matthews-Jones

Historian, Victorianist & Lecturer


stories from a nineteenth-century prison

Joanne Begiato Muses on History

Talking through my research

Reading 1900-1950

The special collection of popular fiction at Sheffield Hallam University

Northern Radical History Network

"To honour the memory of the anonymous" - Walter Benjamin

Joe Moran's blog

My Great Aunt Norah's wartime diaries, 1938-1948

the many-headed monster

the history of 'the unruly sort of clowns' and other early modern peculiarities

Working Class Movement Library

A blog from the Working Class Movement Library in Salford

Blogging For Historians

My Great Aunt Norah's wartime diaries, 1938-1948

Home Front Girl

A Diary of Love, Literature, and Growing Up in Wartime America

%d bloggers like this: